APF24 Complementary Medicines Monographs Reference List

1. Therapeutic Goods Administration. Complementary medicines. 2017. At: www.tga.gov.au/complementary-medicines

2. Braun L, Cohen M. Herbs and natural supplements: an evidence-based guide. 4th edn. Chatswood: Elsevier; 2015.

3. Cancer Council Australia. Position statement: complementary and alternative therapies. 2013. At: http://wiki.cancer.org.au/policy/Position_statement_-_Complementary_and_alternative_therapies

4. Therapeutic Goods Administration. Complementary medicines reforms. 2017. At: www.tga.gov.au/complementary-medicines-reforms

5. World Health Organization. Traditional, complementary and integrative medicine. 2017. At: www.who.int/traditional-complementary-integrative-medicine/en

6. Byard RW, Musgrave I, Maker G, et al. What risks do herbal products pose to the Australian community? Med J Aust 2017;206(2):86–90.

7. Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. Herbal medicines. 4th edn. London: Pharmaceutical Press; 2013.

8. Therapeutic Goods Administration. Complementary medicine presentation. 2016. At: www.tga.gov.au/book-page/complementary-medicine-presentation

9. Australian Government. Therapeutic Goods Advertising Code. 2015. At: www.tga.gov.au/publication/therapeutic-goods-advertising-code

10. MacLennan AH. Four harms of harmless therapies. Climacteric 1999;2(2):73–4.

11. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Cancer care. 2017. At: www.mskcc.org/cancer-care

12. United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. 2017. At: https://nccih.nih.gov

13. Australian and New Zealand College of Anaethestists. Herbal and dietary supplements. 2017. At: www.anzca.edu.au/patients/frequently-asked-questions/herbal-and-dietary-supplements

14. Frawley J, Adams J, Sibbritt D, et al. Prevalence and determinants of complementary and alternative medicine use during pregnancy: results from a nationally representative sample of Australian pregnant women. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2013;53(4):347–52.

15. Pharmaceutical Society of Australia. Position statement: complementary medicines. 2015. At: www.psa.org.au/policies/complementary-medicines

16. Pharmaceutical Society of Australia. Code of ethics for pharmacists. Canberra: PSA; 2017.

17. National Health and Medical Research Council. Statement on homeopathy. 2015. At: www.nhmrc.gov.au/_files_nhmrc/publications/attachments/cam02_nhmrc_statement_homeopathy.pdf

18. Gregory PJ. Natural medicines. 2017. At: https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com

19. Wooltorton E. Too much of a good thing? Toxic effects of vitamin and mineral supplements. CMAJ 2003;169(1):47–8.

20. Saxena RC, Singh R, Kumar P, et al. A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical evaluation of extract of Andrographis paniculata (KalmCold) in patients with uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection. Phytomedicine 2010;17(3–4):178–85.

21. Coon JT, Ernst E. Andrographis paniculata in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections: a systematic review of safety and efficacy. Planta Med 2004;70(4):293–8.

22. Poolsup N, Suthisisang C, Prathanturarug S, et al. Andrographis paniculata in the symptomatic treatment of uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Pharm Ther 2004;29(1):37–45.

23. Therapeutic Goods Administration. Products containing Andrographis paniculata. Safety advisory: risk of allergic reactions. 2015. At: www.tga.gov.au/alert/products-containing-andrographis-paniculata

24. Williamson E, Driver S, Baxter K, eds. Stockley’s herbal medicines interactions. 2nd edn. London: Pharmaceutical Press; 2013.

25. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. About herbs, botanicals and other products. 2017. At: www.mskcc.org/cancer-care/diagnosis-treatment/symptom-management/integrative-medicine/herbs

26. Ma HY, Sun DX, Cao YF, et al. Herb-drug interaction prediction based on the high specific inhibition of andrographolide derivatives towards UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2014;277(1):86–94.

27. Wider B, Pittler MH, Thompson-Coon J, et al. Artichoke leaf extract for treating hypercholesterolaemia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 3.

28. Rondanelli M, Giacosa A, Morazzoni P, et al. MediterrAsian diet products that could raise HDL-cholesterol: a systematic review. Biomed Res Int 2016;Epub 2016 Nov 1.

29. Chen MH, May BH, Zhou IW, et al. Integrative medicine for relief of nausea and vomiting in the treatment of colorectal cancer using oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Phytother Res 2016;30(5):741–53.

30. Tian QE, De Li H, Yan M, et al. Effects of Astragalus polysaccharides on P-glycoprotein efflux pump function and protein expression in H22 hepatoma cells in vitro. BMC Complement Altern Med 2012;12:94.

31. Zhou Q, Ye Z, Ruan Z, et al. Investigation on modulation of human P-gp by multiple doses of Radix Astragali extract granules using fexofenadine as a phenotyping probe. J Ethnopharmacol 146(3):744–9.

32. Brayfield A, eds. Martindale: the complete drug reference. London: Pharmaceutical Press; 2017.

33. Fuchikami H, Satoh H, Tsujimoto M, et al. Effects of herbal extracts on the function of human organic anion-transporting polypeptide OATP-B. Drug Metab Dispos 2006;34(4):577–82.

34. Beer AM, Neff A. Differentiated evaluation of extract-specific evidence on Cimicifuga racemosa’s efficacy and safety for climacteric complaints. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013; Epub 2013 Aug 25.

35. Fritz H, Seely D, McGowan J, et al. Black cohosh and breast cancer: a systematic review. Integr Cancer Ther 2014;13(1):12–29.

36. Franco OH, Chowdhury R, Troup J, et al. Use of plant-based therapies and menopausal symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2016;315(23):2554–63.

37. Therapeutic Goods Administration. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa). 2007. At: www.tga.gov.au/alert/black-cohosh-cimicifuga-racemosa

38. Leach MJ, Moore V. Black cohosh (Cimicifuga spp.) for menopausal symptoms. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 9.

39. Rockwell S, Liu Y, Higgins SA. Alteration of the effects of cancer therapy agents on breast cancer cells by the herbal medicine black cohosh. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2005;90(3):233–9.

40. Einbond LS, Shimizu M, Nuntanakorn P, et al. Actein and a fraction of black cohosh potentiate antiproliferative effects of chemotherapy agents on human breast cancer cells. Planta Med 2006;72(13):1200–6.

41. Royal Women’s Hospital. Herbal and traditional medicines in pregnancy. 2013. At: www.thewomens.org.au/patients-visitors/clinics-and-services/support-services/medicines-information

42. Royal Women’s Hospital. Herbal and traditional medicines in breastfeeding. 2013. At: www.thewomens.org.au/patients-visitors/clinics-and-services/support-services/medicines-information

43. Oltean H, Robbins C, van-Tulder MW, et al. Herbal medicine for low-back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 12.

44. Griebeler ML, Morey-Vargas OL, Brito JP, et al. Pharmacologic interventions for painful diabetic neuropathy: an umbrella systematic review and comparative effectiveness network meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 2014;161(9):639–49.

45. Derry S, Rice AS, Cole P, et al. Topical capsaicin (high concentration) for chronic neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017, Issue 1.

46. Yong YL, Tan LT, Ming LC, et al. The effectiveness and safety of topical capsaicin in postherpetic neuralgia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Pharmacol 2016;7:538.

47. eMIMS cloud. Sydney: MIMS Australia; 2017.

48. Hakas JF. Topical capsaicin induces cough in patient receiving ACE inhibitor. Ann Allergy 1990;65:322–3.

49. Zhu HD, Gu N, Wang M, et al. Effects of capsicine on rat cytochrome P450 isoforms CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2015;41(11):1824–8.

50. Han Y, Tan TM, Lim LY. Effects of capsaicin on P-gp function and expression in Caco-2 cells. Biochem Pharmacol 2006;71(12):1727–34.

51. Toxicology Data Network. LactMed database. 2017. At: https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov

52. Derry S, Sven-Rice A, Cole P, et al. Topical capsaicin (high concentration) for chronic neuropathic pain in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 2.

53. Puig L, de-Moraqas JM. Enhancement of PUVA phototoxic effects following celery ingestion: cool broth also can burn. Arch Dermatol 1994;130(6):809–10.

54. Peterson S, Lampe JW, Bammler TK, et al. Apiaceous vegetable constituents inhibit human cytochrome P-450 1A2 (hCYP1A2) activity and hCYP1A2-mediated mutagenicity of aflatoxin B1. Food Chem Toxicol 2006;44(9):1474–84.

55. Moses G. Thyroxine interacts with celery seed tablets? Aust Prescr 2001;24:6–7.

56. Melzer J, Rösch W, Reichling J, et al. Meta-analysis: phytotherapy of functional dyspepsia with the herbal drug preparation STW 5 (Iberogast). Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004;20(11–12):1279–87.

57. Ottillinger B, Storr M, Malfertheiner P, et al. STW 5 (Iberogast): a safe and effective standard in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Wien Med Wochenschr 2013;163(3–4):65–72.

58. eTG complete. Melbourne: Therapeutic Guidelines; 2017.

59. Madisch A, Holtmann G, Plein K, et al. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with herbal preparations: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multi-centre trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004;19(3):271–9.

60. Segal R, Pilote L. Warfarin interaction with Matricaria chamomilla. CMAJ 2006;174(9):1281–2.

61. Kassi E, Papoutsi Z, Fokialakis N, et al. Greek plant extracts exhibit selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)-like properties. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52(23):6956–61.

62. Sridharan S, Archer N, Manning N. Premature constriction of the fetal ductus arteriosus following the maternal consumption of camomile herbal tea. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009;34(3):358–9.

63. Brayfield A, ed. Martindale: the complete drug reference. London: Pharmaceutical Press. At: www.medicinescomplete.com

64. van Die MD, Burger HG, Teede HJ, et al. Vitex agnus-castus extracts for female reproductive disorders: a systematic review of clinical trials. Planta Med 2013;79(7):562–75.

65. Jang SH, Kim DI, Choi MS. Effects and treatment methods of acupuncture and herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder: systematic review. BMC Complement Altern Med 2014;14:11.

66. Braun L, Cohen M. Herbs and natural supplements: an evidence based guide. 3rd edn. Elsevier; 2010.

67. Dugoua JJ, Seely D, Perri D, et al. Safety and efficacy of chastetree (Vitex agnus-castus) during pregnancy and lactation. Can J Clin Pharmacol 2008;15(1):e74–79.

68. Banach M, Serban C, Ursoniu S, et al. Statin therapy and plasma coenzyme Q10 concentrations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials. Pharmacol Res 2015;99:329–36.

69. Bank G, Kagan D, Madhavi D. Coenzyme Q10: clinical update and bioavailability. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med 2011;16(2):129–37.

70. Fotino AD, Thompson-Paul AM, Bazzano LA. Effect of coenzyme Q₁₀ supplementation on heart failure: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 2013;97(2):268–75.

71. Madmani ME, Yusuf Solaiman A, Tamr Agha K, et al. Coenzyme Q10 for heart failure. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 6.

72. Mortensen SA, Rosenfeldt F, Kumar A, et al. The effect of coenzyme Q10 on morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure: results from Q-SYMBIO: a randomized double-blind trial. JACC Heart Fail 2014;2(6):641–9.

73. Ho MJ, Li ECK, Wright JM. Blood pressure lowering efficacy of coenzyme Q10 for primary hypertension. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 3.

74. Hernandez-Ojeda J, Cardona-Munoz EG, Roman-Pintos LM, et al. The effect of ubiquinone in diabetic polyneuropathy: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Diabetes Complications 2012;26(4):352–8.

75. Fakhrabadi A, Ghotrom AZ, Mozaffari-Khosravi H, et al. Effect of coenzyme Q10 on oxidative stress, glycemic control and inflammation in diabetic neuropathy: a double blind randomized clinical trial. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2014;84(5–6):252–60.

76. Negida A, Menshawy A, Ashal GE, et al. Coenzyme Q10 for patients with Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2016;15(1):45–53.

77. Zhu ZG, Sun MX, Zhang WL, et al. The efficacy and safety of coenzyme Q10 in Parkinson’s disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Neurol Sci 2017;38(2):215–24.

78. Banach M, Serban C, Sahebkar A, et al. Effects of coenzyme Q10 on statin-Induced myopathy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Mayo Clin Proc 2015;90(1):24–34.

79. Therapeutic Goods Administration. Complementary Medicines Evaluation Committee extracted ratified minutes, 11th meeting. 1999. At: www.tga.gov.au/sites/default/files/cmec-minutes-11.pdf

80. Baskaran R, Shanmugam S, Nagayya-Sriraman S, et al. The effect of coenzyme Q10 on the pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline. Arch Pharm Res 2008;31(7):938–44.

81. DiNicolantonio JJ, Bhutani J, McCarty MF, et al. Coenzyme Q10 for the treatment of heart failure: a review of the literature. Open Heart 2015;2:e000326.

82. Liska DJ, Kern HJ, Maki KC. Cranberries and urinary tract infections: how can the same evidence lead to conflicting advice? Adv Nutr 2016;7(3).

83. Jepson RG, Williams G, Craig JC. Cranberries for preventing urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 10.

84. Durham SH, Stamm PL, Eiland LS. Cranberry products for the prophylaxis of urinary tract infections in pediatric patients. Ann Pharmacother 2015;49(12):1349–56.

85. Maki KC, Kaspar KL, Khoo C, et al. Consumption of a cranberry juice beverage lowered the number of clinical urinary tract infection episodes in women with a recent history of urinary tract infection. Am J Clin Nutr 2016;103(6):1434–42.

86. Jepson RG, Mihaljevic L, Craig JC. Cranberries for treating urinary tract infections. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1998, Issue 4.

87. Mohammed Abdul MI, Jiang X, Williams KM, et al. Pharmacodynamic interaction of warfarin with cranberry but not with garlic in healthy subjects. Br J Pharmacol 2008;154(8):1691–700.

88. Royal Women’s Hospital. Pregnancy and breastfeeding medicines guide. 2017. At: www.thewomenspbmg.org.au

89. Dugoua J, Seely D, Perri D, et al. Safety and efficacy of cranberry (vaccinium macrocarpon) during pregnancy and lactation. Can J Clin Pharmacol 2008;15(1):e80–6.

90. Davis SR, Panjari M, Stanczyk FZ. DHEA replacement for postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96(6):1642–53.

91. Therapeutic Goods Administration. Personal importation scheme. 2015. At: www.tga.gov.au/personal-importation-scheme

92. World Anti-Doping Agency. List of prohibited substances and methods. 2017. At: www.wada-ama.org/en/prohibited-list

93. Scheffers CS, Armstrong S, Cantineau AE, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone for women in the peri- or postmenopausal phase. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 1.

94. Labrie F, Archer DF, Koltun W, et al. Efficacy of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on moderate to severe dyspareunia and vaginal dryness, symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy, and of the genitourinary syndrome of menopause. Menopause 2016;23(3):243–56.

95. Nagels HE, Rishworth JR, Siristatidis CS, et al. Androgens (dehydroepiandrosterone or testosterone) for women undergoing assisted reproduction. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 11.

96. Peixoto C, Devicari-Cheda JN, Nardi AE, et al. The effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the treatment of depression and depressive symptoms in other psychiatric and medical illnesses: a systematic review. Curr Drug Targets 2014;15(9):901–14.

97. Corrigan AB. Dehydroepiandrosterone and sport. Med J Aust 1999;171(4):206–8.

98. Jenkinson D, Harbert A. Supplements and sports. Am Fam Physician 2008;78(9):1039–46.

99. Thompson R, Carlson M. Liquid chromatographic determination of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in dietary supplement products. J AOAC Int 2000;83(4):847–57.

100. Kim C, Halter JB. Endogenous sex hormones, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes in men and women. Curr Cardiol Rep 2014;16(4):467.

101. Labrie F, Diamond P, Cusan L, et al. Effect of 12-month dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy on bone, vagina, and endometrium in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82(10):3498–505.

102. Brien S, Lewith GT, McGregor G. Devil’s claw (Harpagophytum procumbens) as a treatment for osteoarthritis: a review of efficacy and safety. J Altern Complement Med 2006;12(10):981–93.

103. Chrubasik JE, Roufogalis BD, Chrubasik S. Evidence of effectiveness of herbal antiinflammatory drugs in the treatment of painful osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain. Phytother Res 2007;21(7):675–83.

104. Devil’s claw root: ulcers and gastrointestinal bleeding? Prescrire Int 2013;22(144):296.

105. Cuspidi C, Sala C, Tadic M, et al. Systemic hypertension induced by Harpagophytum procumbens (devil’s claw): a case report. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2015;17(11):908–10.

106. Shaw D, Leon C, Kolev S, et al. Traditional remedies and food supplements: a 5-year toxicological study (1991–1995). Drug Saf 1997;17:342–56.

107. Zielinsky P, Busato S. Prenatal effects of maternal consumption of polyphenol-rich foods in late pregnancy upon fetal ductus arteriosus. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today 2013;99(4):256–74.

108. Shou C, Li J, Liu Z. Complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. Chin J Integr Med 2011;17(12):883–8.

109. Yu C, Chai X, Yu L, et al. Identification of novel pregnane X receptor activators from traditional Chinese medicines. J Ethnopharmacol 2011;136(1):137–43.

110. Sevior DK, Hokkanen J, Tolonen A, et al. Rapid screening of commercially available herbal products for the inhibition of major human hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes using the N-in-one cocktail. Xenobiotica 2010;40(4):245–54.

111. Karsch-Völk M, Barrett B, Kiefer D, et al. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 2.

112. Schapowal A, Klein P, Johnston SL. Echinacea reduces the risk of recurrent respiratory tract infections and complications: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Adv Ther 2015;32(3):187–200.

113. Ardjomand-Woelkart K, Bauer R. Review and assessment of medicinal safety data of orally used echinacea preparations. Planta Med 2016;82(1–2):17–31.

114. Gorski JC, Huang SM, Pinto A. The effect of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea root) on cytochrome P450 activity in vivo. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004;75(1):89–100.

115. Hermann R, Richter OV. Clinical evidence of herbal drugs as perpetrators of pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Planta Med 2012;78(13):1458–77.

116. Liu R, Tam TW, Mao J, et al. The effect of natural health products and traditional medicines on the activity of human hepatic microsomal-mediated metabolism of oseltamivir. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2010;13(1):43–55.

117. Qiang Z, Hauck C, McCoy JA, et al. Echinacea sanguinea and Echinacea pallida extracts stimulate glucuronidation and basolateral transfer of Bauer alkamides 8 and 10 and ketone 24 and inhibit P-glycoprotein transporter in Caco-2 cells. Planta Med 2013;79:266–74.

118. Gurley BJ, Swain A, Williams DK, et al. Gauging the clinical significance of P-glycoprotein-mediated herb–drug interactions: comparative effects of St John’s wort, Echinacea, clarithromycin, and rifampin on digoxin pharmacokinetics. Mol Nutr Food Res 2008;52(7):772–9.

119. Organization of Teratology Information Specialists. Echinacea preparations. 2014. At: https://mothertobaby.org/fact-sheets-parent/

120. Heitmann K, Havnen GC, Holst L, et al. Pregnancy outcomes after prenatal exposure to echinacea: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2016;72(5):623–30.

121. Bamford JTM, Ray S, Musekiwa A, et al. Oral evening primrose oil and borage oil for eczema. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 6.

122. Dante G, Facchinetti F. Herbal treatments for alleviating premenstrual symptoms: a systematic review. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 2011;32(1):42–51.

123. Cameron M, Gagnier JJ, Chrubasik S. Herbal therapy for treating rheumatoid arthritis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 2.

124. Puri BK. The safety of evening primrose oil in epilepsy. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2007;77(2):101–3.

125. Dove D, Johnson P. Oral evening primrose oil: its effect on length of pregnancy and selected intrapartum outcomes in low-risk nulliparous women. J Nurse Midwifery 1999;44(3):320–4.

126. Wedig KE, Whitsett JA. Down the primrose path: petechiae in a neonate exposed to herbal remedy for parturition. J Pediatr 2008;152(1):140.

127. Wider B, Pittler MH, Ernst E. Feverfew for preventing migraine. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 4.

128. Holland S, Silberstein SD, Freitag F, et al. Evidence-based guideline update: NSAIDs and other complementary treatments for episodic migraine prevention in adults. Neurology 2012;78(17):1346–53.

129. Loder E, Burch R, Rizzoli P. The 2012 AHS/AAN guidelines for prevention of episodic migraine: a summary and comparison with other recent clinical practice guidelines. Headache 2012;52(6):930–45.

130. Johnson ES, Kadam NP, Hylands DM, et al. Efficacy of feverfew as prophylactic treatment of migraine. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1985;291(6495):569–73.

131. Unger M, Frank A. Simultaneous determination of the inhibitory potency of herbal extracts on the activity of six major cytochrome P450 enzymes using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and automated online extraction. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2004;18(19):2273–81.

132. Nestel P, Clifton P, Colquhoun D, et al. Indications for omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Heart Lung Circ 2015;24(8):769–79.

133. Balk EM, Adams GP, Langberg V, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: an updated systematic review. Evidence report/technology assessment no. 223. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2016.

134. Ulven SM, Holven KB. Comparison of bioavailability of krill oil versus fish oil and health effect. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2015;11:511–24.

135. Gunaratne AW, Makrides M, Collins CT. Maternal prenatal and/or postnatal n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) supplementation for preventing allergies in early childhood. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 7.

136. Bisgaard H, Stokholm J, Chawes BL, et al. Fish oil-derived fatty acids in pregnancy and wheeze and asthma in offspring. N Engl J Med 2016;375(26):2530–9.

137. Schindler T, Sinn JKH, Osborn DA. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy for the prevention of allergy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 10.

138. Königs A, Kiliaan AJ. Critical appraisal of omega-3 fatty acids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2016;12:1869–82.

139. National Heart Foundation of Australia. Healthy hearts position statement. Fish and seafood. 2015. At: www.heartfoundation.org.au/for-professionals/food-and-nutrition/position-statements

140. Siscovick DS, Barringer TA, Fretts AM, et al. AHA science advisory. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation and the prevention of clinical cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2017;135(15):e867–84.

141. Cooper RE, Tye C, Kuntsi J, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and cognition: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Psychopharmacol 2015;29(7):753–63.

142. Tan ML, Ho JJ, Teh KH. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for children with specific learning disorders. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 9.

143. Sydenham E, Dangour AD, Lim WS. Omega-3 fatty acid for the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 6.

144. Burckhardt M, Herke M, Wustmann T, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids for the treatment of dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 4.

145. Gould JF, Treyvaud K, Yelland LN, et al. Seven-year follow-up of children born to women in a randomized trial of prenatal DHA supplementation. JAMA 2017;317(11):1173–75.

146. Delgado-Noguera MF, Calvache JA, Bonfill Cosp X, et al. Supplementation with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) to breastfeeding mothers for improving child growth and development. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2015, Issue 7.

147. Moon K, Rao SC, Schulzke SM, et al. Longchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in preterm infants. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016, Issue 12.

148. Jasani B, Simmer K, Patole SK, et al. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infants born at term. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017, Issue 3.

149. Hill CL, March LM, Aitkin D, et al. Fish oil in knee osteoarthritis: a randomised clinical trial of low dose versus high dose. Ann Rheum Dis 2016;57(1):23–9.

150. Senftleber NK, Nielsen SM, Andersen JR, et al. Marine oil supplements for arthritis pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Nutrients 2017;9(1):e42.

151. Molina-Leyva I, Molina-Leyva A, Bueno-Cavanillas A. Efficacy of nutritional supplementation with omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in dry eye syndrome: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Acta Ophthalmol 2017;Epub 2017 Mar 30.

152. James M, Proudman S, Cleland L. Fish oil and rheumatoid arthritis: past, present and future. Proc Nutr Soc 2010;69(3):316–23.

153. Miles EA, Calder PC. Influence of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on immune function and a systematic review of their effects on clinical outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Nutr 2012;107(Suppl 2):S171–84.

154. Lee YH, Bae SC, Song GG. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis. Arch Med Res 2012;43(5):356–62.

155. Proudman SM, James MJ, Spargo LD, et al. Fish oil in recent onset rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised, double-blind controlled trial within algorithm-based drug use. Ann Rheum Dis 2013: Epub 2013 Sep 30.

156. Therapeutic Goods Administration. Compositional guideline: fish oil—natural. 2012. At: www.tga.gov.au/compositional-guideline/fish-oil-natural

157. Begtrup KM, Krag AE, Hvas AM. No impact of fish oil supplements on bleeding risk: a systematic review. Dan Med J 2017;64(5):A5366.

158. Preston CL, ed. Stockley’s drug interactions. Pharmaceutical Press; 2017. At: www.medicinescomplete.com

159. Akedo I, Ishikawa H, Nakamura T, et al. Three cases with familial adenomatous polyposis diagnosed as having malignant lesions in the course of a long-term trial using docosahexanoic acid (DHA)-concentrated fish oil capsules. Jpn J Clin Oncol 1998;28(12):762–5.

160. World Health Organization. Marine oil supplementation to improve pregnancy outcomes. 2011. At: www.who.int/elena/titles/bbc/fish_oil_pregnancy/en

161. Food Standards Australia New Zealand. Pregnancy and healthy eating. 2016. At: www.foodstandards.gov.au/consumer/generalissues/pregnancy/Pages/default.aspx

162. National Heart Foundation of Australia. Fish and omega-3: questions and answers for health professionals. 2015. At: www.heartfoundation.org.au/images/uploads/main/Programs/Health_Professional_QA_Fish_Omega3_Cardiovascular_Health.pdf

163. Schwingshackl L, Missbach B, Hoffmann G. An umbrella review of garlic intake and risk of cardiovascular disease. Phytomedicine 2016;23(11):1127–33.

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